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”PCB Fabrication Process- Steps .”

The PCB fabrication process is an essential element of the electronics production lifecycle. PCB fabrication employs many new areas of technology that have led to significant improvements in reducing the size of the components and rails used and the reliability of the board.

Producing a PCB is a complex process that involves many steps. Here, we will introduce you to the entire PCB fabrication process of our factory. This ultimate guide covers the most critical steps in the production of PCBs.

Just keep on reading to discover more!
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Among the key subjects on PCB Fabrication Process include:

1. PCB Design and Layout: This section outlines the precautions for PCB layout, precautions before PCB fabrication, and an introduction to pre-production engineering.
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2. Production Prepare: This section briefly describes the production preparation process, including:

●Cut Lamination

Cutting and laminating according to the size of the finished board or the size of the panel;


The primary purpose of drying is to remove the moisture in the board and prevent it from warping during processing. Generally, it dried at 150℃ for 3-4 hours.

3. Inner Layer:
(1) Inner Layer Imaging: This section briefly describes the Inner Layer Imaging consisting of three steps: Inner Film, Inner Exposure, and Inner Layer Development.
(2) Inner Layer Etching: This section briefly describes the Inner Layer Etching consisting of two steps of etching and unloading the film.
Through the etching line, the copper skin covered by the dry film protects, while the copper skin not protected by the dry film is etched away.

The line pattern that needs to retain at this time will display by etching.

Unloading the film
Retreat the dry movie of the copper sheet on the core board, and the line pattern to retained is finally forme.

(3) Inner Layer AOI:

This section briefly describes Inner Layer AOI is an automatic optical inspection,
To check whether the core plate after etching has an open or short circuit,
And the print is clean or not.
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4. Lamination:

This section mainly introduces the definition of Lamination.

5. Drilling: This section introduces mostly Drilling.

6. Electroless copper deposition: This section describes the copper primarily in the base plate. Through the chemical reaction, the hole is coated with a skinny layer of copper, about 2-3 um.

7. Horizontal Electrolytic Plating: This section focuses on the copper in the base plate, and the copper in the hole can be thickened to 5-8um by electron transfer reaction.

8. Outer Layer Imaging: This section focuses on three aspects of outer imaging:
Outer Layer Film
Outward Layer Exposure
External layer development

9. Graphic Plating: This section focuses on the three levels of Graphic Plating, which consists of thick copper plating, tin plating, and film removal.

10.Outer Layer Etching: This section mainly describes the composition of Outer Layer Etching.

11.Solder Mask: This section briefly describes the role of the Solder Mask.

12.Silkscreen: This section briefly introduces Silkscreen.

13.Surface Finish: This section briefly describes the part of surface treatment.
This step is to enable protection of the surface and good solderability. Standard surface finishes include such as Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold, Hot Air Solder Leveling(HASL), Lead-Free HASL, Immersion Silver, OSP( anti-oxidation), etc.

14. Profile: This section describes The engineering department creates a shape program based on the border provided by the customer. The shaping process is based on the engineering department to provide milling.

15. Other Surface Finishing Process: This section focuses on the two methods of the Other Surface Finishing Process:V-CUT、Gold Finger.

16.Electrical Testing: This section focuses on the role of Basic electrical reliability testing and the introduction of Flying Probe Testing.

17.Final Visual Inspection (FQA, FQC): This section mainly describes Final Visual Inspection (FQA, FQC) by professional quality control group for testing.

18.Package&Delivery: This section describes mostly the PCB packaging method and delivery time.

After inspection, the PCBs are vacuum-sealed to keep out dirt and moisture. WellPCB suggests DHL and FEDEX which are more convenient and fast - generally 1-4 Days so you can receive the board as soon as possible and start your project soon.
I believe that you have a general understanding of the fabrication process of PCB after reading this guide.
If you are ready with your PCB design and want to try to implement it for your project; try using our quotation system and upload your CAD or Gerber files. And our experienced professionals are available for consultation and to advise you when needed.

If you want to learn more about the details of PCB manufacturing steps or problems encountered in file generation, you can contact us. We are always at your service.
I am Abby, from WeLLPCB, I am an editor. I hope everyone can give valuable suggestions to my article, thank you!

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